Figure 1: The Abo School Today[CLUI]
(Used Under Creative Commons License)
Can you make out what that sign says?
For those who don't want to squint, it says "Abo Elementary School and Fallout Shelter." It's a school built entirely underground - that building just holds the stairs.
Abo was built in 1962 in the town of Artesia, New Mexico. Ground was broken for the school on June 12 1961 and the first students arrived in August of 1962 - just in time for the Cuban Missile Crisis two months later. Artesia lay within a hundred miles of an Atlas missile complex, a B-52 base, and the White Sands Proving Grounds, all of which would likely be hammered in a war with the Soviets, and before the school was built there had been no public fallout shelters in town. By building the school underground, it would protect not just the 540 children studying there, but also up to 1,860 other people who might use it as a shelter. The decision to go underground was no doubt helped by the Office of Civil Defense's offer to pay for the additional cost of subterranean construction - $134,067 out of the $469,847 price tag. The OCD apparently hoped Abo would inspire other communities to build similar structures.[Ne][Lo][NNP]
Figure 2: Abo School Classroom[NNP]
(Used with Permission)
The school was built by cut-and-cover methods - essentially an enormous basement, but with 15 inches of reinforced concrete above it instead of a building, and a playground built atop the roof. Three windowless blockhouses held stairs leading to the school itself, with 1,800 pound blast doors to seal off the outside once the shelter reached its designated 2,400 occupants. Other features included a two week food supply, a pair of deep wells for water, a 150 kW electric generator, air filters, decontamination showers, a chapel, and a dual-purpose room that could be converted into a morgue.
Figure 3: Plan of Abo School[OCD]
The architect, Frank Standhart, a civil defense advocate and designer of two previous windowless but aboveground schools for Artesia, claimed it could withstand a 20-megaton blast 10 miles away, then remain buttoned-up until fallout died to safe levels. Besides offering shelter in an atomic cataclysm, the underground construction and lack of windows also reduced maintenance and air conditioning costs.[Ne][OCD][Lo] Standhart was also later involved in abortive plans to build an underground high school near Roswell, New Mexico, as well as an underground shopping mall, the "Del Norte Sheltered Shopping Center", also near Roswell. A membership, available for $250, would get you one of the proposed 8,000 spaces in the facility. But the developers, Max Littell and L. W. McGuffin, evidently never reached the 2,500 subscriptions they wanted to have before starting construction.[Is]
Figure 4: Hallway in Abo School[NNP]
(Used with Permission)
The school was moderately famous at the time - Dan Rather did a report on Abo for the CBS Evening News in 1962, and the school's dedication was attended by Assistant Secretary of Defense Steuart Pittman, bearing a congratulatory message from President Kennedy. Over 60,000 people toured the school in the two or three years after it was built.[NNP] According to press reports of the time, reaction to the school was mostly positive within the community. The teachers reportedly liked the lack of windows; one, Mrs. Gertrude McCaw, said the students "are simply less rambunctious. You spend more time teaching and less time disciplining." Another, Lester Vaughan, said, "I asked to be transferred from another Artesia school to Abo. I wanted the unique experience and opportunity to work in the nation's first underground school."[Ne][SJ] The children were also mostly favorable - apparently the air conditioning was a big hit - although concerned about the implications of learning in a fallout shelter:
Russ Baldwin, 4th grade: "You get your brain cooled off down here. It runs better when it's cool... You think a lot about the danger while you're here. Sometimes I have the feeling that fallout is coming now - that it is out there now - and then I go out and it isn't."
Andy Ashton, 5th grade: "I like it because we go to the only underground school in the world."
Martha Terpening, 6th grade: "What I'm afraid of is that my mother is a teacher and she would be safe, but my daddy works at the post office and he wouldn't have any place to go."
Rusty Heckel, age 9: "Being underground gives you a funny feeling - but you know you're safe."[Ne]One is free to wonder if press reports might not be an unbiased source of information on the children's views, of course. And some outsiders condemned the project. The National Council on Schoolhouse Construction averred that "shelter provisions are not compatible with educational requirements",[Ne] although it's not clear from the source if they're referring to Abo specifically or to other proposals that were floating about at the time. A Moscow newspaper, Trud (in English, Labor), was even less pleased, describing at as a product of "nuclear madness" and urging the Artesians to "remember that they are not only spoiling the physical health of the pupils but are also damaging their mental health by indoctrinating them with the idea of inevitability of war." Dr. Frank Lutz of the OCD invited the Russian author to tour Abo before making up his mind, but as far as I know the offer was never taken up.[NNP]
Figure 5: Abo Students Watching a Movie[NNP]
(Used with Permission)
Abo isn't the only underground school in the country - there are others in Virginia, California, New Mexico, Washington, D. C., and probably others I don't know about. It is, however, the only one I know of intended for use as a fallout shelter; the others were sited underground for more mundane reasons like energy conservation.[Ha]
The school remained in use until 1995, when it was replaced with a new, above-ground replacement next to it. It is now used as storage space, and has been designated a National Historic Landmark.[Ha] You can check it out on Google Street View here.
Note: there's some disagreement in the sources about some of the precise numbers (capacity, thickness of the roof). When two sources disagreed, I used the government figure.
[CLUI]: Center for Land Use Interpretation. Accessed July 7 2013. http://clui.org/ludb/site/abo-elementary-school-and-fallout-shelter
[Ha]: Hall, Loretta. Underground Buildings: More Than Meets the Eye. Quill Driver Books, 2004.
[Is]: Isaacs, Terry. "Silos and Shelters in the Pecos Valley: The Atlas ICBM in Chaves County, New Mexico, 1960-1965." New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 4 (October 1993).
[Ne]: Nevin, David. "Nuclear-Age School." The Saturday Evening Post, January 26, 1963, pp. 64-65.
[Lo]: Longinow, A. Civil Defense Shelter Options for Fallout and Blast Protection (Dual-Purpose). IIT Research Institute, 1967. OCD-PS-64-50.
[OCD]: Office of Civil Defense. Incorporation of Shelter into Schools. Department of Defense, 1962. PSD-PC-89-1.
[SJ]: "460 Atomic-Age Kids in Underground School." Sarasota Journal, August 30 1962.
[NNP]: Null, Wesley; Null, John Ross; and Parker, Danny. "Gophers and the Cold War: America's First Underground School and Its Plan to Save a Community." Received via personal communication from Wesley Null. Pictures used with permission.
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